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The smallest or largest pitch diameter that fits onto a screw or into a nut, including all of the form deviations such as lead, thread angle, taper, and roundness. Functional diameter is a measure of the ability to assemble the thread. They are designated as above also including the pitch of thread in mm e.g. M8 × 1, M14 × 1.5, M27 × 2 etc.

According to EN1993-1-8 § 3.6.1(4) the design shear resistance F v,Rd should only be used where the bolts are used in holes with nominal clearances not exceeding those for normal holes as specified in EN 1090-2 'Requirements for the execution of steel structures'. The design resistance of a group of fasteners may be taken as the sum of the design bearing resistances F b,Rd of the individual fasteners provided that the shear resistance F v,Rd of each individual fastener is greater than or equal to the design bearing resistance F b,Rd. Otherwise the design resistance of a group of fasteners should be taken as the number of fasteners multiplied by the smallest design resistance of any of the individual fasteners as specified in EN1993-1-8 § 3.7(1). For this case elastic linear distribution of internal forces should be used as specified in EN1993-1-8 §3.12. The calculated strength properties for coarse pitch thread bolts may be used conservatively for fine pitch thread bolts.Minimum end distance, edge distance, and spacing for bolt fasteners according to EN1993-1-8 Table 3.3 (rounded up to nearest mm) The resulting hole diameter d 0 for each type of hole (normal, oversize, short slotted, long slotted) is determined by adding the nominal clearance given in EN 1090-2 Table 11 to the nominal diameter d of the bolt. For bolts with cut threads where the threads do not comply with EN 1090 the relevant resistances should be multiplied by a factor of 0.85 according to EN1993-1-8 § 3.6.1(3). For typical coarse pitch thread bolts the standard sizes are: M3, M3.5, M4, M5, M6, M7, M8, M10, M12, M14, M16, M18, M20, M22, M24, M27, M30, M33, M36, M39.

For high-strength fastening with a professional finish, M14 fully threaded bolts do the job. Our DIN 933 M14 hex sets in A2 stainless steel and bright zinc plated (BZP) steel are ideal for a range of applications, including construction, repairs, and maintenance. M14 hex sets have a thread diameter of 14mm and a head diameter of 22mm. The thread pitch is 2mm. 14mm Hex Set Screws (Fully Threaded Bolts)

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The interaction between shear and tension is expressed in EN1993-1-8 Table 3.4 according to the following linear relation: where e 1 is the distance between the center of the end bolt and the end of the plate measured parallel to the load direction, p 1 is the distance between the centers of neighboring bolts measured parallel to the load direction, and d 0 is the diameter of the bolt hole.

Minimum and maximum spacing p 1, p 2 and edge distances e 1, e 2 for bolts are given in EN1993-1-8 Table 3.3. The minimum values are: e 1≥ 1.2 d 0, e 2≥ 1.2 d 0, p 1≥ 2.2 d 0, p 2≥ 2.4 d 0, where d 0 is the diameter of the hole, e 1, p 1 are measured parallel to the load transfer direction and e 2, p 2 are measured perpendicular to the load transfer direction. The standard coarse pitch thread metric bolt sizes are: M3, M3.5, M4, M5, M6, M7, M8, M10, M12, M14, M16, M18, M20, M22, M24, M27, M30, M33, M36, M39. Therefore, based on the equations above, the bearing resistance of the bolt F b,Rd is not affected by the distances e 1, p 1, e 2, p 2 when the following conditions are satisfied:For preloaded bolted connections which are slip-resistant at the Serviceability Limit State or the Ultimate Limit State the corresponding shear load F v,Ed should not exceed the design slip resistance as specified in EN1993-1-8 §3.9 and Table 3.2. Only bolt assemblies of classes 8.8 and 10.9 may be used as preloaded bolts. The standarized properties of metric bolts are specified in the international standard ISO 898-1:2009 'Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel - Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs with specified property classes - Coarse thread and fine pitch thread'. The width of the hexagon nuts across flats s is specified in ISO 898-2 Table A.1 for bolt sizes M5 to M39.

According to EN1993-1-8 § 3.8(1) for long joints where the distance between the centers of the end fasteners measured in the direction of load transfer is more than 15 d the design shear resistance F v,Rd of all the fasteners should be multiplied by the reduction factor β Lf specified in EN1993-1-8 equation 3.5. The design shear resistance of bolts F v,Rd as given in EN1993-1-8 Table 3.4 is only valid when the bolt is used in holes with nominal clearance not exceeding the values given in the standard EN 1090-2 'Requirements for the execution of steel structures', as specified in EN1993-1-8 §3.6.1(4). According to EN1993-1-8 Table 3.4 the shear strength of the bolt may be based on the tensile stress area.

d m is the mean of the across points and across flats dimensions of the bolt head or the nut, whichever is smaller. A is the appropriate area for shear resistance. When the shear plane passes through the threaded part of the bolt A is equal to the tensile stress area of the bolt A s. When the shear plane passes through the unthreaded part of the bolt A is equal to the gross cross-sectional area of the bolt A g. The yield strength f yb and the ultimate tensile strength f ub for bolt classes 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.8, 8.8, and 10.9 are given in EN1993-1-8 Table 3.1.